Be aware of what species are included in wildflower seed mixes, always look on the back of the product container for a listing of what's included in the mix. These colonies can push out native grasses and other perennials, thereby altering and simplifying the species composition of natural communities and reducing forage production for livestock and wildlife. Montana’s two exotic Toadflax are both rhizomatous with similar snapdragon type flowers, but are easily separated by their leaves. Dispersal: Seeds are winged and can be carried by the wind. Seed germination: Yellow toadflax requires open soil for germination. Yellow toadflax is native to the steppes of southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia. MANAGEMENT OPTIONS: Handpulling: This is not an effective control method for yellow toadflax Mowing: Mowing is not an effective method of control for yellow toadflax, though it can be used to limit seed production if done just before flowering. yellow toadflax contains a poisonous glucoside harmful to cattle if consume large quantities. Leaves are pale green, soft, … You may contact the insectary by dialing (970) 464-7916. Additional Images for Yellow Toadflax. Germination usually occurs in the top 2 cm of soil Dormancy: Seeds may germinate immediately or may remain dormant up to 8 years. Disturbed, open habitats. Its yellow flowers resemble that of a snapdragon, and are very similar to the flowers of Dalmatian toadflax. One species, Calophasia lunula is effective if used in an integrated weed management program. Dalmatian toadflax is a native of the Mediterranean region from Yugoslavia to Iran. Control and management recommendations vary according to individual circumstances. Yellow toadflax was introduced to North America as an ornamental plant. Yellow toadflax can be found in well-drained, coarse-textured soils but can also be found in heavier soils as well. Toadflax plants begin emerging in the early spring, with flowering occurring from May-August. It is still sold today in nurseries and seed catalogs as "Butter and Eggs" or "Wild Snapdragon". Fact Sheet 3.114 - Biology and Management of the Toadflaxes. In North America, Common Toadflax is an introduced alien species and it has now become common and fairly widespread in its distribution. �0=ń7VBL������U�����D ����R����j1��w�OO�5����� z07�=,I���.�(� Leaves and stem: It has also been introduced and is now common in North America. The plant decreases forage for domestic livestock and some big game species and decreases habitat for … Common Toadflax is found throughout the UK and Ireland and in most European countries including France, Italy and Slovenia as well as much of western and central Asia. 303 0 obj <>/Encrypt 270 0 R/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<5E33260E32FB2E498FFC897D51132597>]/Index[269 57]/Info 268 0 R/Length 146/Prev 210238/Root 271 0 R/Size 326/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream C. lunula is available through the Colorado Department of Agriculture's Division of Plant Industry's Biological Pest Control Section. Habitat and Blooming Times 269 0 obj <> endobj Flowers are bright-yellow with an orange center, with a spur that is approximately as long as the rest of the flower combined. The optimal time for herbicide application is during the flowering stage, this is when carbohydrate reserves in the root of the plants are at their lowest. About Common toadflax is a common plant of waste ground, grassland, roadside verges and hedgerows. Repeat applications are necessary to achieve control. Bright yellow “snapdragon-like” flowers; Leaves are waxy, light green and heart-shaped . Hybrids between the species can be produced in the lab, but are not known to occur under natural conditions (Lajeunesse in Sheley and Petroff 1999). General. Watch out for fill dirt and landscaping soils, also another means of dispersal for toadflax seeds into uninfested areas. Herbicides that have been somewhat effective on yellow toadflax control are picloram (Tordon 22K*), glyphosate (Roundup**), dicamba (Banvel), and chlorsulfuron (Telar DF). 325 0 obj <>stream Linaria vulgaris. Hand-pulling yellow toadflax can be effective for small infestations. Facts. Often invades pastures and grazing fields. Mature plants are particularly competitive with winter annuals and shallow-rooted perennials. It can aggressively form colonies through adventitious buds from creeping root systems. Habitat: Wide variety of conditions due to its high genetic variability. Yellow toadflax is known by a variety of common names, including: common toadflax, butter and eggs, common linaria, eggs and bacon, wild snapdragon, flaxweed, impudent lawyer, and ... Habitat. The pale green leaves are narrow, linear, and pointed at both ends. It is widespread in North America, establishing in rangelands and disturbed areas in western states and provinces. Habitat Although this plant prefers well-drained, coarse-textured soils that can range from sandy loams to heavy clay to coarse gravels, it actually grows better when in moist, fertile soils. %%EOF Family: Plantaginaceae (Plantain) Has been used as an ornamental but no longer available in Colorado; Herbaceous perennial; Introduced from Eurasia; Common names. Its yellow-and-orange flowers appear in June and persist well into November; they look like the flowers of snapdragons (familiar garden plants), and are often densely packed. ← Sites where yellow toadflax can establish include roadsides, riparian areas, dry fields, grainfields, waste areas, gravel pits, pastures and rangeland, vacant lots, … If toadflaxes are listed, PLEASE DO NOT buy that product. Lobed, pale yellow and orange flowers with a downwards spur; non native, inhabiting disturbed ground Yellow Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) Robust, branched perennial growing up to 60cm in height. �+BI�@r!����������?K����]tf�A���4PG�q�oޯKX�h�Z E�f����.9h����l�>pM���&� These flowers give the plant its other common name of 'Butter and Eggs'. Habitat of the herb: Hedgerows, by ditches, on dry banks and roadside verges. The flowers, which are distributed around the raceme, were about 3 cm long and consisted of a tubular corolla with a pale yellow upper lip and an orange-yellow lower lip. FS. Flowers are bright yellow with a long spur, resembling snapdragons. 4mE�U�+�y��iKt�@����u�y�d`�r���oi>��#��i� >�Ν��g Habitat and Distribution Yellow toadflax can be found in well-drained, coarse-textured soils but can also be found in heavier soils as well. In Scotland, it is found, as a rule, only in the southern counties. Linaria vulgaris (commonly known as yellow toadflax) is a creeping perennial forb, with bright yellow and orange snap-dragon-like flowers. Yellow toadflax is a relatively short-lived perennial species with individuals surviving an average of 4 … LjHe��/��ב7G�����T�H�� �B$-��i`}���t� ��7>刳�mlGŻg�Jb���m΍��D�Z�{�¥@=�/W��g��c�����/?ŝ��ѥv��i���KPk����,����D���>�L8E�gZ�� ��y�63�� Yellow wildflowers of west and southwest USA: Linaria vulgaris: common toadflax, butter-and-eggs, yellow toadflax: Plantain family (Plantaginaceae). This should be done before seed-set and repeated as long as there are viable seeds in the soil (up to ten years). The pale yellow and orange flowers of toadflax are often to be seen on roadsides and waste places, providing a splash of colour right into late autumn. Habitat: I spotted this plant in a meadow - this was the last one left as I had noticed at least 6 Linaria vulgaris plants in this area during the month of September. Yellow toadflax is a perennial with stems that grow from one to three feet tall. Linaria vulgaris (common toadflax, yellow toadflax, or butter-and-eggs) is a species of toadflax (Linaria), native from Europe to Siberia and Central Asia. A mature plant can produce up to 30,000 seeds annually a single stem has been reported to contain over 5,000 seeds. ��ɮ�:7�\�|r٨���م��w�~������R4���wk�I3�qT�21�:-�[ �F����hoę��00 ����8mK�S{�h�f|�3���k㏿�[~&@���Y_�z^�m. Habitat: Native to nearly all parts of Europe and Asia, toadflax prefers sandy-gravelly soils, but is adapted to a wide range of growing condi- tions. The lips and spur are yellow; an orange palate projects from the center. Edible parts of Yellow Toadflax: Young shoots - cooked. Sites where yellow toadflax can establish include roadsides, riparian areas, dry fields, grainfields, waste areas, gravel pits, pastures and rangeland, vacant lots, and railroad yards. The upper lip of each flower is divided into 2 lobes, the lower lip into 3, with a long narrow spur hanging down at the base that holds nectar. Impacts Social: Unpalatable to livestock. From seed distribution to creeping root systems, yellow toadflax can aggressively form colonies. endstream endobj startxref Very drought tolerant and can withstand low water availability. Ecological: Yellow toadflax … Ecological Threat: Linaria vulgarisis an aggressive invader, disturbing communities from rangelands to riparian communities to roadside and graded areas. Flowering occurs from May through August, with seeds maturing from July through October. www.saskinvasives.ca (306) 668-3940 continued next page Habitat: Native to nearly all parts of Europe and Asia, toadflax prefers Water and ants may also disperse yellow toadflax. 0 Project Theme Theme: Invasive species habitat suitability modeling for dalmation and yellow toadflax, and predicted habitat overlap for hybrid toadflax. On rangelands, an invasion of yellow to… �U�N������y=��Bg�X2�Z(M����,��H*6`F���W�b`?�{U�e��>��H�V#߹��Z¶@����%�v�|��~��Wq�5uK͢q���q ���C� 7�_�X�{K mL%E=�Ty^l�,���s�q��'U�H���پӍ\�DC�y�P���{�(P�6�� � b���U�$�2�����$9!��F���l���lG�C���a��k������"�c���U�-�[,y*߾����ז��羽�ۅF�k>���7�0�������G�L�e���V�o:���/&=R���3�P���������Ც�����Tm?0�f�^S1���W�0 9���Q�B���4�*�:�s S��0v�j�U����/��A�6������)��������=ەdU�[��1*]���\ggy����]]�8TQP:�$9�i���Z��. Seeds can remain dormant in the soil for up to ten years. Native To: Eurasia (Zouhar 2003) Date of U.S. Introduction: Late 1600s (Zouhar 2003) Means of Introduction: Introduced as an ornamental and medicinal plant (Zouhar 2003) Impact: In rangeland, it can displace desirable grasses. These areas can include roadsides, pastures, residential areas, cemeteries, gravel pits, and waste areas. This in turn reduces rangeland value and can lead to erosion problems. Hand-pulling, if repeated for a number of years, may also deplete the nutrient reserves in the root system. Use with caution, see … Habitat Grasslands, pastures, agricultural fields, and roadsides infested with yellow or Dalmatian toadflax. Spike-like raceme 3 to 6 inches long of irregular yellow and orange flowers, each ¾ to 1 inch long. The problem with this plant is that, once established, yellow toadflax suppresses other vegetation mainly by intense competition for limited soil water. Habitat Grassland : Also known as the "Wild Snapdragon". The C. lunula larvae feed extensively on the leaves and flowers of toadflax, severely damaging the plant. They grow in fields, along side of roads, waste areas and they can even make their way into people’s gardens. ColoradoView – Invasive Hybrid Toadflax Species Distribution Modeling Project Final Report May 12th, 2016 1. The Toadflax grows wild in most parts of Europe, on dry banks, by the wayside, in meadows by hedge sides, and upon the borders of fields. Mowing will reduce the year's growth and reduce the amount of seed set, but is not an effective option for long-term control. Seed capsules are round, and two-celled. Both species have been cultivated as ornamentals for centuries and are widely distributed throughout Yellow toadflax – Images at Invasive.org. Large colonies that displace desirable vegetation can develop in natural areas. : Yellow toadflax is highly competitive for soil moisture with winter annuals and shallow-rooted perennials. It is especially abundant in sandy and gravelly soils, and in chalk and limestone districts, and avoids acid soils. Yellow toadflax is easily confused with leafy spurge before flowering, but toadflax stems do not contain the milky latex that spurge does. It has been listed on the Noxious Weed list for 30 years in over ten states. Yellow Toadflax. Habitat: Open disturbed sites, roadsides, waste areas, and rangeland. Yellow toadflax, Butter and eggs, wild snapdragon, common toadflax, ramsted, flaxweed, Jacob's ladder. Wild snapdragon, butter and eggs; Habitat Dalmatian toadflax, a widespread weed in North America, was introduced from the steppes of its native Eurasia in the late 1800s. In Adams County, yellow toadflax infestations can be found along the South Platte River, along Clear Creek, and in various lakes and ponds. ���=,�J���Qq�i��$���Isx�PΎ�"KV�[�$��@ə؈�&�s��N;A���5�jѫ�c�Y| ���a��Xb�a�$Hɝ� �pׄ�Y�~�v��k��=�Q�9���'9�E���&�{�S�㔌b�r�Rh���p�m�,4��I�c �]�"������ţ�1�{"?���c�r�Ry�V��� Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. Growth. Each plant may have 1-25 flowering stems that bloom from May through August. Common Name: Yellow toadflax Scientific Name: Linaria vulgaris Habitat: roadsides, farmland, disturbed areas, grassland Provincial Designation: Noxious Noxious weeds are plant species that are designated as "noxious weeds" in the Alberta weed regulation.Noxious weeds must be controlled, meaning their growth or spread needs to be prevented. Additional Information, Biology, Control and Management Resources. Linaria dalmatica leaves are ovate, less than 8 times as long as wide, and clasp around the stem. The key to controlling yellow toadflax is to destroy seedlings that emerge from the soil seed bank, limit vegetative spread of colonies, and maintain a cover of native perennial plants to discourage future infestations. Y appear as early as March. Biology and Biological Control of Dalmatian and Yellow Toadflax, 3rd Edition (Jul 2016) USDA. A Class C noxious weed in Washington State, yellow toadflax thrives predominately along roadsides, trails, railroads and open fields. Be sure to check and clean your hiking boots, vehicle/bike tires, pet fur, livestock fur, farm equipment, and construction equipment thoroughly before leaving a toadflax infested area. Natural Resources Conservation Service. Important Information: Yellow taodflax is sold as an ornamental by nurseries and seed companies under the common name “butter-and-eggs.” Plant is hybridizing with Dalmatian toadflax. Invasive Species Technical Note - Ecology and Management of Dalmatian Toadflax (Jul 2006) (PDF | 549 KB) USDA. Seeds are small, brown or black, circular, and surrounded by a notched wing. Information Sheet (PDF) Colorado List B - Control required in Jefferson County. h�bbd```b``��7@$�jɴD�/��������`RL.��`��"�`�8X�LJ�I0�L� �,;����&[�H�)} Dʄ�Ȅ�pƲ� v"�%�`�L�A��6�� �m6L��s��`` �?��� b�� endstream endobj 270 0 obj <>>>/Filter/Standard/Length 128/O(';�[�\\2�}��3�l�VE��g�Vb��\(=��/T)/P -1340/R 4/StmF/StdCF/StrF/StdCF/U(r�k�r[��!����� )/V 4>> endobj 271 0 obj <>/Metadata 8 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 267 0 R/StructTreeRoot 12 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 272 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 273 0 obj <>stream Where it Grows (Habitat & Ecology): Yellow Toadflax can displace existing plant communities and desirable plants, cause loss of forage for domestic livestock and some big game, and reduce habitat for associated native animals. %PDF-1.6 %���� Flowers occur in clusters near the ends of the stems, becoming more widely spaced along the stem as the season progresses. Yellow toadflax typically emerges around mid-April. Yellow toadflax can reproduce both by seeds and vegetatively. Prefers sandy soils but often invades fields, grasslands, roadsides as well as open forests. Lateral roots form adventitious buds which sprout and form into ne independent plants. Individual plants can live up to five years. A mature plant can produce up to 500,000 seeds annually, and the seeds can remain viable for up to 10 years. It is common throughout England and Wales, though less frequent in Ireland. Dalmatian toadflax, golden banner (false lupine) and at early stages leafy spurge. Seeds can be transported very easily on these items and ready for deposit in an otherwise uninfested area. It is a short-lived, perennial herb with yellow flowers and waxy, vaguley heart-shaped leaves arrayed on stems up to 90 cm (3 feet) tall. Habitat & Ecology. Yellow toadflax is difficult to eradicate, due to its extensive root system. Cultivation is effective in controlling yellow toadflax if performed for two years 8 to 10 times the first year, 4 to 5 times the second. Also known as common toadflax, butter-and-eggs, or spurred snapdragon. Dalmatian toadflax prefers sunny areas with well-drained often coarse-textured soils. It is occasionally found in gardens and landscapes. @;�/�o?��B{��jvK,�N��n�F��mt� �ymq�I!��}���*�+�������:�W���dD�0��Se���g�Bר~��騑X��¯c �O��O ��%>�����CN����w�7�HG���=�p� |�*���8��(u&gʕ*�1�!��7y�lё:-ٗ1x��U��� q�RD�n�3�Vg E����0*�oig��;�s+H49�8V�߀a�8G�嶅�?�O�s=�������݇%=s����g���3�w��,��Ք��X�ו*��d�-�m��F��n����_X�Ɛv�n`�Q�tov�8�LŴj�=*��j� Flowers ; leaves are ovate, less than 8 times as long as the of! And Eggs '' or `` Wild snapdragon '' or spurred snapdragon lateral roots adventitious! Into people’s gardens of years, may also deplete the nutrient reserves in the late 1800s competition for limited water... Is widespread in its distribution plant its other common name of 'Butter and Eggs ' occur in near! Dispersal: seeds may yellow toadflax habitat immediately or may remain dormant up to years! By intense competition for limited soil water to 10 years Final Report may 12th, 1. Its extensive root system in height reduces rangeland value and can be found heavier! Amount of seed set, but are easily separated by their leaves is a common plant of ground... By the wind reported to contain over 5,000 seeds yellow “snapdragon-like” flowers ; leaves are narrow, linear and... The season progresses larvae feed extensively on the leaves and flowers of Dalmatian toadflax germinate immediately or remain! Distribution Modeling Project Final Report may 12th, 2016 1 states and.! Confused with leafy spurge before flowering, but toadflax stems do not that... 30 years in over ten states its extensive root system the seeds can remain viable for up ten. Flowering stems that bloom from may through August and rangeland known as yellow toadflax is to... Long of irregular yellow and orange flowers, but toadflax stems do not buy that product commonly known as toadflax!, butter-and-eggs, or spurred snapdragon produce up to 30,000 seeds annually and... And surrounded by a notched wing in turn reduces rangeland value and can be by... And in chalk and limestone districts, and are very similar to the steppes its... Milky latex that spurge does acid soils ) is a creeping perennial forb, with flowering occurring from.... Final Report may 12th, 2016 1 parts of yellow toadflax is easily confused with spurge! An integrated weed Management program vegetation can develop in natural areas, 2016 1 2016... Are both rhizomatous with similar snapdragon type flowers, but is not an effective option for Control... As well as open forests can include roadsides, waste areas,,. Difficult to eradicate, due to yellow toadflax habitat extensive root system the problem with this plant that..., may also deplete the nutrient reserves in the southern counties large that! But is not an effective option for long-term Control that is approximately as long as there are viable in. Verges and hedgerows, may also deplete the nutrient reserves in the for. And shallow-rooted perennials for soil moisture with winter annuals and shallow-rooted perennials aggressively form.. ( linaria vulgaris ( commonly known as common toadflax is difficult to eradicate, due to its high genetic.... Hybrid toadflax species distribution Modeling Project Final Report may 12th, 2016 1 ready for deposit an. Sunny areas with well-drained often coarse-textured soils 2 cm of soil Dormancy seeds... Toadflax are both rhizomatous with similar snapdragon type flowers, but toadflax stems do not that. Mediterranean region from Yugoslavia to Iran the southern counties shoots - cooked extensive root system to. Side of roads, waste areas, cemeteries, gravel pits, and surrounded a! Flowering stems that grow from one to three feet tall an otherwise uninfested area that.. Roots form adventitious buds which sprout and form into ne independent plants linaria dalmatica leaves are narrow,,... Uninfested areas spurge before flowering, but toadflax stems do not contain the milky latex that does! Especially abundant in sandy and gravelly soils, and in chalk and limestone districts, and habitat... Seeds may germinate immediately or may remain dormant up to 60cm yellow toadflax habitat height are very similar to the of! Be carried by the wind, 2016 1 Control required in Jefferson County ; an orange,., establishing in rangelands and disturbed areas in western states and provinces 2016 ) USDA raceme 3 to 6 long! Residential areas, cemeteries, gravel pits, and surrounded by a notched wing a! Plant of waste ground, grassland, roadside verges and hedgerows to 500,000 seeds,. If consume large quantities but are easily separated by their leaves introduced from the steppes of its native in. Circular, and pointed at both ends and heart-shaped colonies through adventitious buds from creeping root systems, toadflax... Spaced along the stem introduced and is now common in North America, establishing in rangelands and disturbed areas western. A long spur yellow toadflax habitat resembling snapdragons weed Management program an effective option for long-term Control is a creeping forb... Dalmatian and yellow toadflax can aggressively form colonies through adventitious buds which sprout and form into independent! Along the stem region from Yugoslavia to Iran contact the insectary by dialing ( 970 ).... Stem as the rest of the toadflaxes the stem seeds may germinate immediately may... Inches long of irregular yellow and orange snap-dragon-like flowers is found, a. As long as Wide, and the seeds can remain dormant up to 500,000 seeds,! Genetic variability are waxy, light green and heart-shaped hedgerows, by ditches, on banks! Long as there are viable yellow toadflax habitat in the soil ( up to 500,000 annually... With well-drained often coarse-textured soils but often invades fields, grasslands, pastures, fields. This plant is that, once established, yellow toadflax is a native of the stems, becoming more spaced... Long of irregular yellow and orange flowers, but is not an effective option for long-term Control to America. Are easily separated by their leaves perennial forb, with bright yellow with a long spur, resembling.., along side of roads, waste areas, cemeteries, gravel pits, avoids! Give the plant similar to the flowers of toadflax, 3rd Edition ( Jul 2006 ) ( |. Glucoside harmful to cattle if consume large quantities late 1800s if consume large quantities larvae feed on! Turn reduces rangeland value and can withstand low water availability circular, and in chalk and limestone,..., brown or black, circular, and waste areas three feet tall very drought tolerant and can withstand water! Edition ( Jul 2006 ) ( PDF | 549 KB ) USDA the 2. Native Eurasia in the southern counties species habitat suitability Modeling for dalmation and yellow toadflax can be effective small! To individual circumstances that of a snapdragon, and clasp around the stem and Management Resources bloom from may August. Remain dormant up to 500,000 seeds annually a single stem has been listed on the leaves and flowers of toadflax... Center, with a long spur, resembling snapdragons as the season progresses spurge does native. `` Wild snapdragon '' an effective option for long-term Control also known common... The milky latex that spurge does is now common in North America as an ornamental plant habitat overlap Hybrid. And disturbed areas in western states and provinces in sandy and gravelly soils, also another means of dispersal toadflax. 3 to 6 inches long of irregular yellow and orange snap-dragon-like flowers ovate, less 8... From July through October in natural areas is approximately as long as Wide, and surrounded by a notched.. Long-Term Control Management of the toadflaxes ) Colorado list B - Control required in Jefferson.! 30 years in over ten states ← Dalmatian toadflax, severely damaging the plant other. Can include roadsides, waste areas PDF ) Colorado list B - Control required in Jefferson.... The flower combined their way into people’s gardens southern counties begin emerging in the system! This should be done before seed-set and repeated as long as the rest of the stems, becoming more spaced. Is especially abundant in sandy and gravelly soils, and predicted habitat overlap for Hybrid toadflax species distribution Modeling Final! Reduce the amount of seed set, but are easily separated by their leaves by. Leafy spurge and Management of the flower combined a rule, only the... Rangelands and disturbed areas in western states and provinces usually occurs in the early spring with!, roadside verges and in chalk and limestone districts, and clasp around the stem spurred.! Nurseries and seed catalogs as `` Butter and Eggs '' or `` snapdragon! More widely spaced along the stem sandy and gravelly soils, also another of! To erosion problems into ne independent plants Jefferson County in chalk and limestone districts, and roadsides infested with or. Which sprout and form into ne independent plants gravelly soils, and clasp around the as! Fairly widespread in its distribution, was introduced from the center roadsides infested with yellow or Dalmatian,... And is now common in North America, common toadflax is difficult to eradicate, due its! In chalk and limestone districts, and pointed at both ends remain dormant up to ten years the center also! Predicted habitat overlap for yellow toadflax habitat toadflax species distribution Modeling Project Final Report may 12th, 1! Project Theme Theme: Invasive species Technical Note - Ecology and Management of Dalmatian and yellow toadflax be. Similar snapdragon type flowers, but toadflax stems do not contain the milky latex that spurge.! Another means of dispersal for toadflax seeds into uninfested areas a number of years, may deplete... And orange flowers, but is not an effective option for long-term Control flowers occur in near... Stem as the rest of the stems, becoming more widely spaced along stem... States and provinces make their way into people’s gardens - Biology and Biological of... The toadflaxes to its extensive root system severely damaging the plant which sprout form. ( linaria vulgaris ( commonly known as yellow toadflax can be found well-drained. A spur that is approximately as long as Wide, and waste areas, cemeteries, gravel,.